A little while ago, I saw @jdanbrown tweet the following “OH: ‘So I did a search for “node.js lock”, and then I was like, “I’m dumb”.'”. Now that’s funny–everyone knows that JavaScript’s event-loop concurrency model means that you don’t have the problems of threads with shared memory, locks, deadlocks, data races, etc that you have in languages like C or Java.

Except that’s not right. JavaScript’s concurrency model is cooperative, which means that you don’t get descheduled if you don’t want to be, but everything else about shared memory concurrency is still there. As a demonstration, here’s some shared-memory concurrency in JS:

var x = 1;
setTimeout(function() { x = 2; }, 2);
setTimeout(function() { console.log(x); }, 0);

What value of x gets logged? Well, that depends on when the two different callbacks get inserted into the event queue, just like the semantics of a shared-memory program with threads.

For a more involved example, here’s a lock in JavaScript:

// a lock with exponential backoff

function Lock() {
    this.state = 0;
    return this;

Lock.prototype.acquire = function(cb) { 
    var self = this;
    var check = function(N) {
	if (self.state === 0) {
	    self.state = 1;
	    cb(); }
	else { 
	    console.log("backing off to ", 2*N);

Lock.prototype.tryAcquire = function() { 
    if (this.state === 0) {
	this.state = 1;
	return true;
    return false;

Lock.prototype.release = function() { this.state = 0; }

This code isn’t perfect (you can release someone else’s lock, for example), but it demonstrates all the relevant issues. Now we can code up dining philosophers:

var N = 5;
var forks = [];
for (var i = 0; i < N; i++) {
    forks.push(new Lock());

function deadlock () {
    for (var i = 0; i < 5; i++) {
	console.log("starting philosopher", i);
 	    console.log("philosopher", i, "picked up fork", i);
	    return function() {
		forks[(i+1)%N].acquire(function() {
		    console.log("philosopher ", i, " eating");

Running deadlock() deadlocks in my version of Firefox, just like you’d expect. We can adopt a lock ordering solution, as described in the Wikipedia article:

function work () {
    for (var i = 0; i < 5; i++) {
	console.log("starting philosopher", i);
	var j1 = Math.min(i,(i+1)%N);
	var j2 = Math.max(i,(i+1)%N);
	    console.log("philosopher", i, "picked up fork", i);
	    return function() {
		forks[j2].acquire(function() {
		    console.log("philosopher ", i, " eating");

Most of the time in JavaScript, you don’t need to write locks explicitly like this. However, you shouldn’t think that event-based concurrency eliminates synchronization, or shared memory, or anything other than preemption.

Of course, JavaScript is in good company here: even Erlang (message sending is arbitrarily-ordered mutation of process inboxes, see also Mnesia) and Haskell (the M in MVar stands for “mutable”) are languages with concurrency and shared mutable state.